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    Display of submit button controlled from which class
    byu/DigitalSplendid inweb_design

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    byu/DigitalSplendid from discussion
    inweb_design

    Source: Generated taking help of ChatGPT

    Sure, let’s dive deeper into CSS specificity and how it affects the order in which styles are applied to HTML elements.

    Understanding CSS Specificity

    CSS specificity is a set of rules applied by browsers to determine which style rule is applied to an element when multiple rules could apply. Specificity is calculated based on the types of selectors used in a rule.

    Categories of Selectors and Their Specificity Weights

    1. Inline Styles: Inline styles added directly to an element (style="...") have the highest specificity.
      • Example: <h1 style="color: pink;">
      • Specificity: 1000
    2. IDs: Selectors that target an element by its ID.
      • Example: #navbar
      • Specificity: 100
    3. Classes, Pseudo-classes, Attribute Selectors: Selectors that target an element by its class, pseudo-class, or attribute.
      • Examples: .test, :hover, [href]
      • Specificity: 10
    4. Elements and Pseudo-elements: Selectors that target an element by its type or pseudo-element.
      • Examples: h1, ::before
      • Specificity: 1

    Calculating Specificity

    To calculate specificity, we count the number of each type of selector in a compound selector and assign weights according to the above categories. The specificity is expressed as a combination of four values (a, b, c, d):

    • a: Inline styles (not applicable in most stylesheets)
    • b: ID selectors
    • c: Class selectors, attribute selectors, and pseudo-classes
    • d: Type selectors and pseudo-elements

    Each of these values is multiplied by its respective weight and then summed to get a final specificity score.

    Examples of Specificity Calculation

    Example 1: .google-submit

    • .google-submit is a class selector.
    • Specificity: 0 0 1 0 (10)

    Example 2: .buttons input[type="submit"]

    • .buttons is a class selector (c = 1).
    • input[type="submit"] is an element selector combined with an attribute selector (d = 1, c = 1).
    • Specificity: 0 0 2 1 (20 + 1 = 21)

    Why .buttons input[type="submit"] Has Higher Specificity

    The selector .buttons input[type="submit"] has a higher specificity score (21) compared to .google-submit (10). Therefore, when both selectors are applied to the same element, the styles defined in .buttons input[type="submit"] will take precedence over those defined in .google-submit.

    Practical Example

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <title>Google Search</title>
        <link rel="stylesheet" href="styles/styles.css">
    </head>
    <body>
        <div class="buttons">
            <input type="submit" class="google-submit" value="Google Search" />
        </div>
    </body>
    </html>
    
    .google-submit {
        background-color: #f2f2f2; /* creamish color */
        color: #5f6368; /* grey text */
        border: 1px solid #dfe1e5; /* light grey border */
        border-radius: 4px; /* rounded corners */
        font-size: 14px;
        padding: 10px 20px;
        cursor: pointer;
        margin: 5px;
        transition: background-color 0.3s;
    }
    
    .buttons input[type="submit"] {
        background-color: #1a73e8; /* blue color */
        color: #fff; /* white text */
        border: none;
        border-radius: 4px;
        padding: 10px 20px;
        cursor: pointer;
    }
    

    Explanation

    • The input element has both the google-submit class and is within a div with the class buttons.
    • .google-submit applies specific styles to the button.
    • .buttons input[type="submit"] targets the same button with higher specificity, overriding the background-color and color.

    Conclusion

    Understanding CSS specificity is crucial for effectively managing and troubleshooting style conflicts in web projects. By following the rules and calculating specificity correctly, you can predict which styles will be applied and ensure your design behaves as expected.

    Further Reading

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